Pharmaceuticals News -- ScienceDaily
Size, structure help poziotinib pose threat to deadly exon 20 lung cancer
A drug that failed to effectively strike larger targets in lung cancer hits a bulls-eye on the smaller target presented by a previously untreatable form of the disease.
New vaccine could help people overcome 'bath salts' abuse
Researchers have developed a vaccine for one of the most dangerous types of synthetic cathinones, or bath salts. The vaccine blunts the illegal stimulant's effects on the brain, which could help recovering drug users who experience a relapse.
Nanomedicine: Drugs can be made 'smarter'
A new method has been developed to make drugs 'smarter' using nanotechnology so pharmacologists can tailor their drugs to more accurately target an area on the body, such as a cancer tumor.
Hacking human 'drug trafficking' network could make diabetes treatments more effective
Making tiny changes to existing diabetes treatments can alter how they interact with cells, and potentially make the medicines more effective.
E. coli's internal bomb may provide novel target for treatment strategy
Bacteria's internal bomb, the so-called toxin-antitoxin (TA) system that is part of the normal bacterial makeup, may be triggered to make bacteria turn on themselves, providing a valuable target for novel antimicrobial approaches in drug design, according to new research.
Medical chemists discover peptic ulcer treatment metallodrug effective in 'taming' superbugs
A novel solution to antimicrobial resistance -- medical chemists discover peptic ulcer treatment metallodrug effective in 'taming' superbugs.
New method to discover drugs to treat epilepsy
For more than a third of children living with epilepsy, the currently approved medications do not stop their seizures. Researchers have developed a new drug screening method to discover drugs to treat epilepsy.
Characterizing 'keyhole' is first step to fighting obesity at cellular level
Scientists have characterized for the first time a complex, little-understood cellular receptor type that, when activated, shuts off hunger.
Deep learning predicts drug-drug and drug-food interactions
Scientists have developed a computational framework, DeepDDI, that accurately predicts and generates 86 types of drug-drug and drug-food interactions as outputs of human-readable sentences, which allows in-depth understanding of the drug-drug and drug-food interactions.
Gene mapping lays groundwork for precision chemotherapy
Despite the great successes of targeted cancer drugs and the promise of novel immunotherapies, the vast majority of people diagnosed with cancer are still first treated with chemotherapy. Now a new study using techniques drawn from computational biology could make it much easier for physicians to use the genetic profile of a patient's tumor to pick the chemotherapy treatment with the fewest side effects and best chance of success.
People who use medical marijuana more likely to use and misuse other prescription drugs
Can medical marijuana help to fight the opioid epidemic£ Many believe that it can. But a new study finds that people who use medical marijuana actually have higher rates of medical and non-medical prescription drug use -- including pain relievers.
Scientists create technology that measures tumors' drug resistance up to 10 times faster
Scientists have developed a new, high-speed microscopy platform that can measure a cancer cell's resistance to drugs up to 10 times faster than existing technology, potentially informing more effective treatment selection for cancer patients.
Drug reduces size of some lung cancer tumors, relapse rate after surgery
A drug given to early stage lung cancer patients before they undergo surgery showed major tumor responses in the removed tumor and an increase in anti-tumor T-cells that remained after the tumor was removed, which resulted in fewer relapse cases in the patients.
First-in-human clinical trial of new targeted therapy drug reports promising responses for multiple cancers
A phase I, first-in-human study reveals for the first time, an investigational drug that is effective and safe for patients with cancers caused by an alteration in the receptor tyrosine kinase known as RET. The drug appears to be promising as a potential therapy for RET-driven cancers, such as medullary and papillary thyroid, non-small cell lung, colorectal and bile duct cancers, which have been historically difficult to treat.
New affordable hepatitis C combination treatment shows 97 percent cure rate
The sofosbuvir/ravidasvir combination treatment for hepatitis C has been shown to be safe and effective, with extremely high cure rates, according to interim results from the Phase II/III STORM-C-1 trial.
Even short international travel can spread colistin-resistant bacteria
The use of the antibiotic colistin, a last-resort treatment option in the infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria, is increasingly impeded by colistin-resistant bacteria. Researchers used biochemical and genetic assays to track resistant strains of bacteria in Japanese travelers returning from Vietnam. The researchers found short trips to a developing country can lead to the appearance of the colistin-resistance gene mcr-1. The study highlights that even brief international trips can contribute to the spread of colistin resistance.
Viagra has the potential to be used as a treatment for rare cancers
The class of drugs currently prescribed to treat male erectile dysfunction has been flagged for its potential to be included in new trials for anti-cancer drugs.
New glaucoma treatment could ease symptoms while you sleep
Eye drops could one day treat glaucoma while you sleep -- helping to heal a condition that is one of the leading causes of blindness around the world.
Antiepileptic drugs increase risk of Alzheimer's and dementia
The use of antiepileptic drugs is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia, according to a new study. Continuous use of antiepileptic drugs for a period exceeding one year was associated with a 15 percent increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in the Finnish dataset, and with a 30 percent increased risk of dementia in the German dataset.
Cancer genes characterized using ground-breaking new method
All cells in our body carry the dictionary of genetic information, the human genome. However, their shape and function are determined by which genes are read from this dictionary and translated into proteins, the building blocks of a cell. The “reading” of active genes starts with their transcription into so-called messenger RNAs (mRNAs), a process that is controlled through a complex network of transcriptional regulators. Mutations in these regulators can alter the function and identity of cells and thereby lead to cancer and other human diseases. At the same time, blocking abnormal transcription can kill cancer cells, which makes some transcriptional regulators attractive targets for drug development.
Organoids created from patients' bladder cancers could guide treatment
Researchers have created patient-specific bladder cancer organoids that mimic many of the characteristics of actual tumors. The use of organoids, tiny 3-D spheres derived from a patient's own tumor, may be useful in the future to guide treatment of patients.
'Coffee filter' helps make new cancer drug Z-endoxifen 1000 times cheaper
Making drugs cheaper doesn't always require pricey investments. A new initiative proves just that. What started out as a Bachelor project laid the foundation for a much cheaper production of the promising cancer drug Z-endoxifen.
Common diabetes drug may also help with nicotine withdrawal
In a mouse study, a drug that has helped millions of people around the world manage their diabetes might also help people ready to kick their nicotine habits.
How did gonorrhea become a drug-resistant superbug?
Researchers have identified mutations to the bacterium Neisseria gonnorrhoeae that enable resistance to ceftriaxone that could lead to the global spread of ceftriaxone-resistant 'superbug' strains.
Mifepristone may halt growth of intracranial tumor that causes hearing loss
Researchers have shown that mifepristone, a drug currently FDA-approved for chemical abortion, prevents the growth of vestibular schwannoma (also known as acoustic neuroma) cells. This sometimes-lethal intracranial tumor typically causes hearing loss and tinnitus.
Flare-responsive hydrogel developed to treat arthritis
Bioengineers and physicians team up to develop a better delivery system for getting anti-inflammatory therapies to the sites where they are needed most.
Combination immunotherapy improves survival in mouse models of mesothelioma
Investigators have found that combined treatment with two cancer immunotherapy drugs -- one a novel immune modulator and one that focuses and activates the anti-tumor immune response -- significantly prolonged survival in mouse models of the aggressive cancer malignant mesothelioma.
Liquid biopsy technology to improve prostate cancer treatment
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men worldwide, according to 2012 numbers. While several viable treatment options for prostate cancer exist, many men affected with prostate cancer will not respond to first-line treatments. Researchers have now developed a new technology for liquid biopsy to identify which patients may not respond to standard therapy before it is delivered.
Pediatric cancer drug shows 93 percent response rate
A first-of-its-kind drug targeting a fused gene found in many types of cancer was effective in 93 percent of pediatric patients tested, researchers say.
Detailed structure illuminates brain-enhancing drug's action
A drug that reverses the effects of a cellular stress response restores learning and memory in mice with concussions. Now researchers can see the atomic-scale details of how the drug interacts with its protein target.
Simplifying and speeding up drug development
Researchers have developed a method to examine millions of potential self-produced drug candidates in one go.
Drug that kills mosquitoes could be used to fight malaria
Researchers have shown the large potential impact of a completely new type of antimalarial drug that kills mosquitoes, as opposed to existing drugs that target the parasite, to reduce the spread of malaria.
New findings on antimicrobial drug synergy
New data could change how future antimicrobial drug combinations are discovered and developed.
Cell-penetrating 'nanodrills' show promise for intracellular drug delivery
Researchers have created new nanomaterials able to cross cell membranes, establishing a novel platform for the intracellular delivery of molecular drugs and other cargo.
Promising drug may stop cancer-causing gene in its tracks
Scientists are testing a promising drug that may stop a gene associated with obesity from triggering breast and lung cancer, as well as prevent these cancers from growing.
New targeted therapy schedule could keep melanoma at bay
Optimizing the timing of targeted therapies for melanoma reverses tumor growth, and resistance can be mitigated.
In laboratory, scientist turns off chemo pain
Researchers describe their success in an animal model in turning off the excruciating pain that often accompanies a colorectal cancer drug.
Drug reduces inflammation in stroke patients
An anti-inflammatory drug given to patients in the early stages of a stroke has been shown by researchers to reduce harmful inflammation. The drug, Kineret©, licensed for treating rheumatoid arthritis, was given as a small injection just under the skin without giving the patients any identifiable adverse reactions.
Drug-related mortality rates are not randomly distributed across the US
Between 2006 and 2015 there were more than 515,000 deaths from drug overdoses and other drug-related causes in the US. The economic, social, and emotional tolls of these deaths are substantial, but some parts of the US are bearing heavier burdens than others. Evidence from the first national study of county-level differences suggests that addressing economic and social conditions will be key to reversing the rising tide of drug deaths.
New family of promising, selective silver-based anti-cancer drugs discovered
A new family of potential silver-based anti-cancer drugs has been discovered by researchers in South Africa. The most promising complex among these has been successfully tested in rats and in several human cancer cell lines in laboratory studies. The complex is as effective against human esophageal cancer cells, as a widely-used chemotherapy drug, but at a ten times lower dose, and much lower toxicity against non-malignant cells.
First proof a synthesized antibiotic is capable of treating superbugs
A 'game changing' new antibiotic which is capable of killing superbugs has been successfully synthesized and used to treat an infection for the first time -- and could lead to the first new class of antibiotic drug in 30 years.
Breakthrough antimalarial drug delivery system using mesoporous silica nanoparticles
Drug delivery systems (DDSs) are important methods of delivering medicine to affected areas. An international collaborative research group has successfully developed the world's first DDS for antimalarial drugs. The treatment has increased efficiency up to 240 times as much as when antimalarial medicine is taken orally.
Non-psychoactive cannabis ingredient could help addicts stay clean
A preclinical study in rats has shown that there might be value in using a non-psychoactive and non-addictive ingredient of the Cannabis sativa plant to reduce the risk of relapse among recovering drug and alcohol addicts. The study's findings inform the ongoing debate about the possible medical benefits of non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
Antimicrobial used in toiletries could become option against malaria
Not only it inhibits enzymes essential to Plasmodium's survival in two key stages of its lifecycle in humans, but triclosan also performed well in tests against resistant parasites, an international study reveals. The efficiency of malaria treatment with mostly used drugs is undermined by resistant lineages and by the fact that patients present severe side effects in 10 percent of the cases.
Biochemists develop substances fighting obesity
Biochemists are working on substances that are to help fighting three widespread diseases: depression, chronic pain and obesity.
One in 10 people have traces of cocaine or heroin on their fingerprints
Scientists have found that drugs are now so prevalent that 13 percent of those taking part in a test were found to have traces of class A drugs on their fingerprints -- despite never using them.
Antibiotics often inappropriately prescribed for hospitalized kids, global study suggests
Nearly a third of all antibiotics prescribed for hospitalized children globally were intended to prevent potential infections rather than to treat disease, according to new results.
Compound to prevent breast cancer cells from activating in brain
Researchers have used computer modeling to find an existing investigational drug compound for leukemia patients to treat triple negative breast cancer once it spreads to the brain.
Three-in-one molecule shows promise in helping certain breast cancer patients
A newly designed three-part molecule could be the one answer patients with a certain form of breast cancer are looking for, scientists report. This chimera has the ability to simultaneously decrease the expression of three growth factors that are over-expressed in some cancers.
Protein nutrition for cells and organisms: Can we use it to treat diseases?
A review article highlights opportunities and challenges in using amino acid transporters as drug targets. The article provides an overview of methods used to identify new inhibitors for amino acid transporters and outlines cell and organ function where these can be used to modulate, prevent or to treat diseases.
Molecular doorstop could be key to new tuberculosis drugs
In discovering how an antibiotic kills the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, scientists open the door to new treatments for the disease -- and possibly others, as well.
Progress toward a new flu treatment, thanks to a small tweak
This year's aggressive flu season reminds everyone that although the flu vaccine can reduce the number of people who contract the virus, it is still not 100 percent effective. A tweak to a small-molecule drug shows promise for future production of new antiviral therapies that could help patients, regardless of the strain with which they are infected.
Identifying 'designer' drugs taken by overdose patients
Medical professionals are scrambling to meet growing demand for emergency room treatment of drug overdoses, but they're hampered by the lack of a quick and easy test to screen patients for synthetic 'designer' drugs. Chemists are developing such a test with the hope that hospitals could eventually use it to choose the appropriate treatment.
3-D tissue model of developing heart could help drug safety testing for pregnant women
An engineering team has developed a process that combines biomaterials-based cell patterning and stem cell technology to make a 3-D tissue model that could mimic early stage human heart development. Embryotoxicity is just one potential use of the modeling platform.
Molecular basis of major antibiotic resistance transfer mechanism unraveled
One of the biggest current threats to global health is the rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria, caused by the spreading of antibiotic resistance amongst them. In an attempt to help fight this threat, researchers have unraveled the molecular basis of a major antibiotic resistance transfer mechanism. They also developed molecules and a proof-of-principle for blocking this transfer.
ADHD drugs increase brain glutamate, predict positive emotion in healthy people
New findings offer clues about how misused drugs affect healthy brains and hint at an undiscovered link between glutamate and mood.
'Body on a chip' could improve drug evaluation
Engineers have developed new technology that could be used to evaluate new drugs and detect possible side effects before they are approved for human use. Using a microfluidic chip that connects tissue samples from up to 10 organs, the researchers can accurately replicate human organ interactions, allowing them to measure the effects of drugs on different parts of the body.
Study debunks fears of increased teen suicide risk from popular flu drug
A new study suggests that the drug oseltamivir -- commonly known as Tamiflu -- does not cause an increased risk of suicide in pediatric patients.
Biophysicists discover how small populations of bacteria survive treatment
Small populations of pathogenic bacteria may be harder to kill off than larger populations because they respond differently to antibiotics.
Scientists describe potential antibody treatment for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae
Researchers are developing a promising alternative to antibiotic treatment for infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria resistant to carbapenem antibiotics. The approach uses antibodies to target the K. pneumoniae protective capsule polysaccharide, allowing immune system cells called neutrophils to attack and kill the bacteria.
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